In the past, the goat was not given to the bride's family if the woman was not a virgin, but nowadays this is not usually practiced.
(spring 2010, 29) In correspondence with the Research Directorate, a professor at the Institute of Sociology at the Université libre de Bruxelles who researches Luba in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), indicated that endogamy [the custom of marrying within one's own group] is "quite important" for the Luba in Kasaï, but expressed the contrasting view that there are many "'cross-marriages'" as well (Professor 8 Apr. Further information could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response. Forced Marriages and Levirate 2.1 Forced Marriages Law No. The family occupies a "central place" in the personal life of each Luba, and in the social, economic and political organization of its society.The family is a source of legitimacy, social recognition, status, acceptability, and identity, and determines an individual's rights and privileges in society.09/001 of January 10, 2009, on Child Protection (Loi no 09/001 du 9 janvier 2009 portant protection de l'enfant) contains the following provisions: [translation] Article 48 The betrothal and marriage of children is prohibited. The US Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2013 indicates that [w]hile the law prohibits the marriage of boys and girls under age 18, some marriages of underage children took place. Article 189 Any person who is responsible for a child as their parent or guardian and who gives this child in marriage or for the purpose of marriage or who forces this child to marry shall be sentenced to imprisonment for five to twelve years and to a fine of eight hundred thousand [C0 (XE 29 Apr. Bridewealth payment made by a groom or his kin to the kin of the bride to ratify a marriage greatly contributed to underage marriage, as parents forcibly married daughters to collect bridewealth or to finance bridewealth for a son. 2014, 28) The Professor indicated that he would "hardly say" that forced marriage is practiced by the Luba in Kasaï and that "it certainly depends on the rural/urban divides, and inside the city, on social milieus" (8 Apr. The representative of Les anges du ciel indicated that forced marriages are not common nowadays, though arranged marriages do occur among the Luba (Les anges du ciel 26 Apr. She indicated that a parent of a man may ask the parents of a woman to [translation] "keep" her for marriage at a later date and may pay the dowry in advance (ibid.).