In the 20th century there was additional concentration of population in the city of Barcelona and its satellite towns.Catalonia’s traditional agriculture was centred on the production of wine, almonds, and olive oil for export, as well as rice, potatoes, and corn (maize) as staples.Spain’s Constitutional Court struck down portions of this autonomy statute in 2010, ruling that Catalans constituted a “nationality” but that Catalonia was not, itself, a “nation.”Many Catalans, frustrated at the management of the Spanish economy throughout the , continued to push for increased fiscal independence from the central government.In 2013 the Catalonian regional parliament passed a measure calling for a referendum on independence from Spain to be held in 2014.Full autonomy was granted in 1979 with the establishment of the autonomous community of Catalonia.In 2006 Catalonia was granted “nation” status and given the same level of taxation responsibility as the Spanish central government., and the independence campaign was suspended while the Constitutional Court considered the legality of the vote.
Dissatisfaction in Catalonia with the new Trastámara dynasty of Aragon increased after 1412, and during the reign of , along with the decline of the Spanish monarchy’s prestige, led to the first of a series of Catalan separatist movements.
Slightly more than one-third of Catalonia remains under cultivation, and the traditional crops of olives and grapes are being supplanted by fruits and vegetables for consumption in the cities.
The raising of pigs and cows is the dominant agricultural activity.
The capital is separates the coastal plain from the Ebro river basin.
The Catalanides have historically separated the industrial towns of the coast from the predominantly agricultural settlements of the hinterlands.
In 1640 Catalonia revolted against Spain and placed itself under the protection of (“Rebirth”).