[F]1192-95 The Hungarian Pray Manuscript, or Codex, is dated 1192-95, having been made at the Benedictine monastery of Boldva in Hungary between those years.
Hungary was then ruled by King[Above (enlarge): "The Pray Codex, 1192-95: "The Codex Pray, Pray Codex or The Hungarian Pray Manuscript is a collection of medieval manuscripts.
So in 1203 there existed in Constantinople a linen shroud with an imprint of Christ's body on it, over a half-century before the earliest radiocarbon date, 1260.
But then it would be the "sindon which God wore," mentioned in a letter of of 958 by Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (r. Wilson, I., 2008, "II: Nicholas of Verdun: Scene of the Entombment, from the Verdun altar in the monastery of Klosterneuburg, near Vienna," British Society for the Turin Shroud Newsletter, No.
This icon corresponds more closely to the face on the Shroud than any other, having 13 of the 15 Vignon markings (see part #2). C., 1998, "Researching the Shroud of Turin: 1898 to the Present: A Brief Survey of Findings and Views," in Minor, M., Adler, A. & Piczek, I., eds., 2002, "The Shroud of Turin: Unraveling the Mystery: Proceedings of the 1998 Dallas Symposium," Alexander Books: Alexander NC, p.33; Wilson, 1998, pp.146-147; Scavone, D.
It also bears an inscription in ancient slavonic: OBRAZ GOSPODIN NA UBRUSJE "the portrait of the Lord on the cloth", which must mean that the artist worked directly from the Shroud, which was in Constantinople between 9. C., "Greek Epitaphoi and Other Evidence for the Shroud in Constantinople up to 1204," in Walsh, B., ed., 2000, "Proceedings of the 1999 Shroud of Turin International Research Conference, Richmond, Virginia," Magisterium Press: Glen Allen VA, pp.196-211, 196-197; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.116; Guerrera, 2001, pp.104-105; Scavone, D.
913-959) as already in the imperial relic collection[see "958"], over 300 years before the earliest 1260 radiocarbon date of the Shroud!
[D]1201-1204: The Holy Face of Laon (French: "Sainte Face de Laon") is a glazed panel painted presumably at Constantinople between 12, or even in the second half of the 12th[Above (enlarge): "Icon of the Holy Face (Mandylion) of Laon.
It is now kept in the Cathedral of Laon, Picardy, France.
But since the Sainte Face dates from the beginning of the thirteenth century (or even from the end of the 12th century), and it is a copy of the Shroud image, then the Shroud must date from well before 1200. C., "Underscoring the Highly Significant Historical Research of the Shroud," in Tribbe, 2006, p.xxvi; Oxley, 2010, pp.37-38; Wilson, 2010, pp.183-184, 300; de Wesselow, 2012, pp.178-181. Wilson, 1998, p.147; Scavone, 2000, pp.196-197; Guerrera, 2001, p.106; Whiting, B., 2006, "The Shroud Story," Harbour Publishing: Strathfield NSW, Australia, pp.92; Oxley, 2010, p.38; de Wesselow, 2012, p.181. Iannone, 1998, p.154; Wilson & Schwortz, 2000, p.115; Marino, J.
This cannot be reconciled with the 1260-1390 radiocarbon dating.[E]1201: Nicholas Mesarites, the Keeper of Constantinople's Pharos Chapel relic collection, in 1201 wrote:"In this chapel Christ rises again, and the sindon with the burial linens is the clear proof ... G., 2011, "Wrapped up in the Shroud: Chronicle of a Passion," Cradle Press: St.
) laid His naked body on a cloth to imprint His image on it, that this can only be an early 12th century reference to the Shroud, nearly a half-century before the earliest radiocarbon date of 1260, and mentioned in archives which were "ancient" even then! Wilson, 1979, p.165; Iannone, 1998, pp.120-121; Wilson, 1998, p.271; Guerrera, 2001, p.6; Tribbe, 2006, p.25; de Wesselow, 2012, p.177. Wilson, 1979, pp.165-166; Scavone, 1989b, p.321; Iannone, 1998, p.121; Wilson, 1998, p.271; Tribbe, 2006, p.25; de Wesselow, 2012, p.177. Bulst, W., 1957, "The Shroud of Turin," Mc Kenna, S. J., transl., Bruce Publishing Co: Milwaukee WI, p.8. Ruffin, 1999, p.110; Zodhiates, S., 1992, "The Complete Word Study Dictionary: New Testament," AMG Publishers: Chattanooga TN, Third printing, 1994, pp.1093-1094.
[C]1203: French crusader knight Robert de Clari, a chronicler of the Fourth Crusade (1202–4), wrote in his 1204 diary The Conquest of Constantinople what he saw in Constantinople in late 1203:"...