However, a 2009 study a year later by Yaunting Zhang and Jennifer Van Hook on behalf of Journal of Marriage and Family using a larger sample size than the previous study produced different results with Asian female/White male marriages shown as the least likely to divorce of any marriage pairing.This data comes from Table 3 Model 4 of the Zhang paper, which incorporates all controls into the model.Virginia, but also continues to represent an absolute minority among the total number of wed couples.
Eight states including Arizona, California, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, and Utah extended their prohibitions to include people of Asian descent.
S.-born Asian Pacific American women took White husbands during the year of publication.
Anti-miscegenation laws discouraging marriages between Whites and non-Whites were affecting Asian immigrants and their spouses from the late 17th to early 20th century.
For example, a study by the Centre for Behaviour and Evolution, Newcastle University confirmed that women show a tendency to marry up in socio-economic status; this reduces the probability of marriage of low SES men.
Research at the universities of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and Texas A&M addressing the topic of socio-economic status, among other factors, showed that none of the socio-economic status variables appeared to be positively related to outmarriage within the Asian American community, and found lower-socioeconomically stable Asians sometimes utilized outmarriage to whites as a means to advance social status.
The study also observed a clear gender divide in racial preference with regards to marriage: Women of all the races which were studied revealed a strong preference for men of their own race for marriage, with the caveat that East Asian women only discriminated against Black and Hispanic men, and not against White men.