During the early 20th century archaeologists led by George Coedès made excavated in what is now Nakhon Pathom Province and found it to be a centre of Dvaravati culture.
The Mun River in particular is home to many "moated" sites composed of mounds surrounded by ditches and ramparts.
After the end of the absolute monarchy in 1932, Thailand endured sixty years of almost permanent military rule before the establishment of a democratically elected-government system. Prior to the southwards migration of the Tai peoples from Yunnan in the 10th century, mainland Southeast Asia had been a home to various indigenous communities for thousands of years.
The recent discovery of Homo erectus fossils such as Lampang man is an example of archaic hominids.
Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states of the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra had ruled the region.
The Thai established their own states: Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, the Kingdom of Chiang Mai, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom.
Following their conquest of Malacca in 1511, the Portuguese sent a diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya.